訴求改選 才能脫困

以「倒閣、解散國會、重新改選立委」打開政治僵局 ▇詹長權

淺碟的民主文化,使得我們從二○○○年總統選舉至今,始終生活在選舉進行當中,落敗的一方仍未能真誠認輸,勝選者也沒有能力肩負所需承擔的責任。政黨輪替,雖然讓一群終身當官的國民黨權貴首次嚐到失去權力的苦味,卻同時也讓一群圍繞在權力核心的民進黨新權貴和投機份子嚐盡濫用權利的滋味。

六年多以來,政權轉移和人事更替的一上一下,所產生的社會張力和權力腐敗,讓政治情勢始終動盪不安,社會氣氛膠著詭異。在野黨私心政客利用部分人民不甘心、不認輸的社會心理,聯手推動一個個不合情理且虛擬的政治議題,例如:真調案、罷免案、自動下台案。使台灣社會掉進惡質政治鬥爭的惡性循環中自我內耗、相互摩擦的困境。 沒有人可以否認幾年來陳總統的一些言行舉止是有爭議的,他所推動的某些政策,也是有討論與反對的空間,但是我不認為這些事實足以構成現代民主國家對總統職位因「內亂、外患、或重大瀆職」而得以罷免的充分條件。 至於部份人士以空泛且無標準的政治道德來要求陳總統自動請辭的訴求,同樣違背民主政治中主權在民的原則和民主國家治權取捨的合法合理機制。 反罷免和反請辭無關挺扁或反扁,因為要求罷免和自動請辭都不是為了維護總統在憲政體制上合法地位的正途(save the presidency, not the President)。

陳總統和民進黨面對政治不清廉和施政無成效所累積的高漲民怨,加上在野黨立法委員以不盡責的言論和政黨惡鬥所導致的困頓政局,是已經走到了可以動用憲法所規範「倒閣、解散國會、重新改選立法委員」的民主程序,讓人民來做最新一次民意審判的時候。選舉後,哪一個政黨取得相對多數立委席次,就由那一個政黨的當選人之一來組閣,讓台灣朝準內閣制國家發展。 如果民進黨的總得票無法取得相對多數,則陳總統應順從最新民意知所進退。如果在野黨不敢推動或配合「倒閣、解散國會」案,陳總統和民進黨就自然取得繼續執政的合法和合理性。

但是一個沒有足夠社會威望的總統和執政黨,勢必造成政策與黨綱糾纏不清、利益與人事糾葛動盪的執政困境,往往只能勉強湊合一些討好卻不永續的政策,來維繫不穩定的執政權。現在的台灣需要靠一個負責任的政黨以及有聲望的領導者,以黨的信用與個人的信譽來向全民做承諾,並結合社會上進步的力量來推動改革,才能克服政治經濟上的挑戰。在立法院推動「倒閣、解散國會」,然後重新改選立法委員,是陳總統與民進黨向人民道歉最具體、也是唯一有意義的作為。

(作者為台大公共衛生學院教授,澄社社員)

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