抗議與警察

林佳和 (澄社社員/國立政治大學法律系副教授)

哲學家阿岡本:政治最核心之謎,不在主權,而在政府,不在上帝,而在天使,不在君主,而在部長,不在法律,而在警察。台灣的抗議行動一向不少,警察處置方式常為關注焦點,從幾年前三一八,去年世大運,到最近反勞基法「遊街」中的抓上車再丟包,都是如此。

以反勞基法的丟包為例,由法律觀之,涉及的是警察執法大量出現的管束:拘束人身自由,限制行動,短時間的、預防性的、警察限制與剝奪自由。如此警察標準措施,雖被認符合歐洲人權公約,但具體適用上常生爭議。以集會遊行來說,重點在於預測具體情狀,必須回到關於是否存在危害的判斷上,單純「違反集會遊行法之意圖」,不足以合理化警察管束干預,包括預防性管束,除非有更清楚的行為威脅,而單純遊街顯然不夠。如果先管束、再驅離,依歐洲人權法院見解,必須以驅離合法為前提:警察驅離命令,必須清楚、明確,義務人拒絕離開現場,然後,管束必須清晰的連結到驅離,符合比例原則。由於管束侵害人權情節重大,必須綁於「預防犯罪行為發生」,以防止刑事可罰行為為對象,方足當之。由此描述來看,一二二三的警察執法,確實值得檢討。

當代是「愛批評之市民」時代,西班牙街頭運動者說:「現在就要真正的民主」(Democracia real YA!),時代雜誌把「社會抗議者」選為二○一一年度風雲人物,政治觀察家言道:人民不再自溺自哀於永遠的無力感,不想徒呼「我們沒辦法改變什麼」,取而代之的是「憤民」,經濟學家Peter Jay說,民主就像咬住自己尾巴的蛇,開始在吞噬自己。面對「破碎的社會」,不甘無奈,思索新的民主與政治,都述說著抗議行動的重要性,或許,警察面對集會遊行的正確執法,是一個重新體認、使其得以發揮民主意涵的必要開始。

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