一個人的革命

林宗弘/中央研究院社會學研究所副研究員

1989年的6月4日的天安門運動之後,至今已過了28年,這是人類歷史上第三波民主運動的一次重大挫敗,卻對當時蘇聯控制下的東歐國家產生極大擴散效應,對當時台灣政治轉型的各方參與者,亦有所啟示。公允地說,六四犧牲者複雜地影響了台灣的民主與人權發展,值得我們紀念與深思。

近三十年來,兩岸民主與威權對比日益顯著。5月24日,台灣大法官會議宣布民法排除同性婚姻違反憲法所規範的平等權,若無修法則兩年後自動失效,此一判決使台灣成為亞洲第一個同婚合法化的國家。許多報導強調少數重要運動者的終身貢獻,然而,這是過去台灣民眾爭取言論自由、民主轉型、公民運動、女性權益擴張的成果,絕不只是一個人的革命。

同婚合法,無意中證成了民主與公民權利背後的國家主權。在這個台灣公民權利擴張的歷史性時刻,中國大陸政府與外國媒體陷入極為尷尬的處境。各國媒體不知該稱台灣是「國家」、「自治島嶼」或「地區」,而國台辦發言人在記者詢問兩岸同志婚姻如何處理時,竟然無法回答。不僅如此,國台辦選在端午連假前夜,聲明台灣人李明哲是以涉嫌「顛覆國家政權罪」被捕,又在台商活動中宣布今年底將給台灣民眾「近國民待遇」。同時,中國大陸擁有五百萬用戶的女同志交友軟體「熱拉」被關閉,十數位六四紀念運動與同志權益活動者被失蹤。

在過去十餘年中國經濟躍昇的時期,少數海內外學者為威權統治與中國模式唱讚歌,模糊六四事件的歷史意義。然而事實證明沒有民主,經濟發展恐怕無法帶來其他公民權利。反之,若沒有六四,雖然中國大陸未必就有同婚合法化,但是在一個更開放的社會,有言論與集會結社自由,至少女性權益與同志權益可以大幅伸張,而且李明哲的行為絕對犯不上「顛覆國家政權罪」。

其實,一個人是搞不成革命的,然而威權體制的生存邏輯是要殺雞儆猴。中共給其他台灣人的近國民待遇,還有誰會認真想要呢。

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