自己的實驗室!

林宜平╱陽明大學科技與社會研究所副教授

英國作家吳爾芙(Virginia Woolf)二十世紀初在談〈婦女與小說〉的演講中,結論是:「女性若是想要寫作,一定先要有自己的錢和自己的房間。」對女性書寫的空間與意義有精闢的闡述,而擁有「自己的房間」(和自己的錢)也成為許多女性的夢想與婦女運動的重要口號。

近年來在環境運動中,也開始出現「自己的實驗室」的訴求。由美國「寂靜春天研究中心」等環保團體發起的「環境乳癌運動」,有感於乳癌相關研究,不是接受政府經費補助,就是有化妝品業者的財力支持(如著名的「粉紅絲帶」),主流流行病學研究過度強調個人生活型態,忽視環境毒物的影響,環境乳癌運動透過募款(有自己的錢),支持環境毒物的相關研究,試圖建立「自己的實驗室」。

由民眾小額募款所成立的「自己的實驗室」,最著名的是在義大利古堡裡,以職業醫學之父為名的「拉馬齊尼癌症研究中心」,這個成立於1970年的毒理學實驗室,是目前僅次於美國毒理學計畫,全世界第二大的動物實驗室,早期以氯乙烯的研究成名,相繼進行超過兩百種化學物質的毒理學實驗,證實至少五十種致癌物,從1990年代起,他們開始檢測有大量人口使用,但是致癌性不確定的食品及食品添加物,包括咖啡、茶、可樂與代糖等。因為長期研究的經費充裕,又沒有「球員兼裁判」的利益衝突,他們的研究結果不但受學界與政府管制單位重視,也有民眾的高度信賴。

不過在環境與職業健康危害的爭議中,除了毒理學研究證據外,常需要流行病學研究與健康風險評估的證據支持。建立毒理學研究室,購置儀器設備、繁殖大小鼠、招募科學家等,要建立支持環境運動「自己的毒理學實驗室」,有錢和「自己的房間」是充分必要條件,但是要建立環境與職業流行病學的「實驗室」(或是「研究室」)卻有不同的難度。流行病學研究與健康風險評估,經費與空間需求並不高,只要有一台電腦,受過流行病學或風險評估訓練的專家,有時間又有能力,即可完成,真正的困難來自研究資料的取得不易。環境與職業健康危害的研究,常與產業的重大利益息息相關,無論員工資料,製程中使用的化學物質,或是廢棄物的排放資料等,保存在政府部門的資料常不完備,資方又常以資料已銷毀、法規未要求或涉及商業秘密為由,拒絕提供。

台灣的環境運動要建立自己的實驗室,除了募款與尋找空間,更需要尋求管制單位的支持,透過立法公開及保存資訊,才能打開科學不確定的黑盒子,迎接春天的到來!

※本文刊登於2013.04.12自由時報自由廣場〈自己的實驗室〉http://www.libertytimes.com.tw/2013/new/apr/12/today-o9.htm,此為原稿全文。

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