胡適會替「美牛推定無害」背書嗎

邱文聰 中央研究院法律學研究所副研究員
劉靜怡 台灣大學國家發展研究所教授

馬英九總統在連夜拍板解禁美國瘦肉精牛肉的隔日,專程造訪中央研究院的胡適紀念館,自陳高中起即受胡適影響。但在馬推崇胡適「有幾分證據,說幾分話」的表白之後,藉胡適替美牛政策說項的弦外之音,卻也不經意流露出來。

<不只科學還有民主>
胡適是實用主義哲學的信徒,畢生以「懷疑一切沒有證據的東西」的精神著稱。依其邏輯,既然「現有文獻沒查到消費者食用中毒的個案報告」,表面上看來不正是意味「沒有科學證據證明食用飼料添加萊克多巴胺的肉品對人體有害」嗎?因此,馬政府「推定美國瘦肉精牛肉無害」的結論,似乎也是跟隨著胡適的教誨而來。

只是,主張「大膽假設,小心求證」的胡適,若是地下有知,大概沒想到自稱為其追隨者的馬總統,卻對於同樣欠缺科學證據支持的「瘦肉精牛肉長期安全性」──因為根本沒有人針對消費者使用含瘦肉精肉品之後的可能影響,踐行有系統研究──從未予以懷疑。

選擇性的懷疑,從來不是胡適留下的遺產。但是,針對含萊克多巴胺的牛肉,我們究竟應該予以「無害推定」,還是「有害推定」呢?在雙方都欠缺充分證據的情況下,這個「無害推定」vs.「有害推定」的典型當代科技決策困境,或許已超越了胡適實驗主義的指導範圍。然而,馬總統心儀的胡適當年諄諄提示的理念,除了科學之外,還有自由、還有民主,也是不該忽略的。

依照現行《食品衛生管理法》第11條規定「食品或食品添加物,從未於國內供作飲食『且未經證明為無害人體健康』者,不得……販賣、……輸入。」肉品中的萊克多巴胺本來就不是任何食用肉品本應有的物質,且這樣的肉品也從未於國內供作飲食之用,依照上述法律的規定,在「未經證明為無害人體健康」前,其命運應只有「不得販賣、輸入」一途。此一現行法係立法者針對科學實驗主義的困局,依「謹慎預防原則」的風險控管原理,作出「有害推定」的價值選擇。因此,除非能「積極證明」萊克多巴胺的安全性無可置疑,否則,透過「民主」程序所做成的價值選擇,已經在實驗主義未能企及的科技決策困局裡,給了決策者明確的答案。

<清楚說明交換條件>
當然,在民主社會裡,任何透過民主程序做成的價值選擇,都可以在合乎民主憲政要求的前提下改變。但是對於人民來說,透過民主程序做成的價值選擇,往往便是自由權利的最終憑藉!要打破這個憑藉,除了應踐行修法程序外,風險評估是否公正,決策過程是否透明負責,人民是否受充分告知,都是關鍵。以單一個案的長期或短期利益權衡,當作否定民主的理由,實失之輕率。

即使行政權有兵臨城下的外國壓力,而認為國家法律有被例外懸置的必要,因而放膽違法宣布美牛解禁,瞬間將一個本來被包裝成科學專業問題的法律決策轉為政治問題。

那麼,基於民主政治的課責原理,至少也必須事先清楚告訴人民,此次美牛決策背後,究竟交換了什麼?是TIFA的前金?免簽的條件?還是選前支持馬的後謝?抑或其他更難以言說的條件?好歹,人民可藉此揣想未來還有多少類似困境,而非任由政府傲慢地十六字原則當擋箭牌,硬逼人民仰賴執行成本極高又不可靠的強制標示保護自己。倘若凡事要求人民仰賴市場機制,那麼政府何用?

我們的結論是,馬總統在此次美牛決策的表現既不科學,也不民主,也違法侵害人民自由。至於胡適,則是無辜成了馬總統的裝飾品,胡適紀念館所代表的理想與美感,頓時蕩然無存。

2012年 03月08日 蘋果日報http://tw.nextmedia.com/applenews/article/art_id/34075349/IssueID/20120308

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