譴責「偏激」的政媒鬥士撕裂民主

2012-01-06

@瞿海源

第四次總統選舉聽 即將進入倒數計時的關鍵時刻,千萬選民和全國民眾都在緊張期待新一任總統的產生。回顧整個競選過程,特別是近兩個月來的激烈競選,深深覺得「極偏」而「激烈」的政媒鬥士正在撕裂台灣的民主。難道民主競選必需要如此偏而激?非得殺得如此眼紅?如此慘烈?

競選,尤其是兩黨式的競選,容易造成對立,而長期一黨執政演變成兩黨政治,長期執政的政黨仍然擁有過大的資源,包括有形的資產和無形的群眾勢力,相對的,新興政黨往往以反對及改革的姿態有強盛的衝刺力,兩相對陣,自然「戰況」激烈。為了贏得選舉乃至選戰勝利,對陣雙方就不斷發動攻擊,開闢新的戰場。在這次競選中,國民黨陣營在一開始就咬定對方有奧步,只要對方說什麼,就反射性地說是抹黑,自己一方卻也不斷醜化對手,甚至動用行政部門炮製莫須有的案件窮追猛打,主導釀成負面競選的亂局。

競選造勢乃至在選舉中攻防要真正有效,就必得靠大眾媒體的報導和傳播。國內的媒體在戒嚴時期不但被黨政嚴密控制,甚至本身就是黨政壓制民主的重要工具。民主化以後,媒體看起來是全面開放了,表面上黨政軍退出了廣電媒體,但是黨政勢力卻以微妙而邪惡的方式盤據媒體,於是媒體就遭到藍綠政治勢力割據。其間,挾長期威權統制之優勢,藍媒勢力又遠遠大於綠媒。

如果媒體經營者和媒體主管階層還體認到媒體應有公共和民主性格,遵循傳播和新聞倫理,民主社會的媒體正可矯正偏激的黨政競選,然而,在台灣,不幸的是媒體在黨政勢力侵入下竟罔顧新聞和傳播倫理,在競選中推波助瀾,甚至成為黨政的代理人,肆無忌憚為所欲為只為謀取勝選。

我們極力譴責政媒鬥士偏而激烈的競選惡行,企盼在選後,黨政領導階層、掌握媒體的資本家及媒體高層主管、民間自主性團體痛定思痛來積極建構超越藍綠的自由媒體空間。

(中央研究院社會學研究所研究員)

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