新自由主義的照妖鏡

2011-11-11

@林佳和

前英國首相布萊爾所倚重的國師,倫敦政經學院的紀登斯教授說到,追求利潤不一定會帶來有害的利己主義,相反的,它可能是道德倫理力量的泉源,可用來排拒政治的勒索與社會的成見。然而,教授說,新自由主義者則不然,他們經常過度強調道德,刻意將論述做法泛道德化、形上學化。比方說,在他們的假設中,理想的競爭,必須仰賴企業主的「善行」,但該如何期待企業主擁有成熟的道德性呢?新自由主義者花費許多功夫,給企業主不斷的道德呼籲,包括自我紀律、正義、誠懇、公平、騎士精神、自我克制、尊重人性。弔詭的是,許多道德呼籲看起來卻與所主張的競爭內涵彼此衝突,難怪被人譏諷為市場激進主義與文化保守主義的矛盾。

某台灣科技公司,原本要放員工數個月無薪假,卻又同時以老闆名義捐贈上億元給母校,不正是新自由主義最佳寫照嗎?一方面強調國際競爭與市場景氣之嚴峻,叫嚷著靠工資維生的勞工應共體時艱,另方面卻不忘大發善行,塑造自己的道德形象外衣。吾人寧信其捐贈善舉的初衷,不是常見作為宣傳用的企業公關,然而,這樣的突兀對比仍然驚人,難道,一個成熟社會果真能無視與無動於衷?

新自由主義照妖鏡還不只這一遭呢,台灣的政府也難逃其照射,就讓我們舉教育機關為例吧!一下子想要出手禁止師生戀,又急著想把菸槍堵住通往校長之路,標榜減輕負擔之高道德訴求的一綱一本,倉皇而又糊裡糊塗的遁逃,轉過頭來又要大家重拾四書五經,卻又常常不肯承認與面對校園的性侵與暴力,從某個角度看,不也正是新自由主義的特徵嗎?自由民主與開放多元的社會,新自由主義者表面上從不反對,卻不時大小動作不斷,突兀的過度強調道德,往往只是通往相反的歧路,台灣社會豈可不慎。

(作者為國立政治大學法學院助理教授)

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