威瑪德國政治司法的教訓

2011-08-26

@林佳和

一次大戰結束,告別德皇的封建專制,德國人迎向第一個民主共和威瑪。熟悉歷史的人都清楚,威瑪是沒有共和人的共和國,特別是代表國家機器的公務員、軍人與法官,沒有民主素養,有的只是反自由的陳舊迂腐。威瑪司法,被當代與後世痛陳為政治司法:法官依政治好惡判案,同情者輕放,甚至百般慰撫與體諒,厭恨者毫不留情,嚴刑峻罰立即伺候,偏偏審判獨立與抽象法條,提供法院最好的工具與遮羞布。不像法學者爭辯的,威瑪當然有憲法保護,只是法官不用在同路的憲法敵人身上而已。這是體制性國家暴力,毫無疑問。

至少在今天,我不相信法院是國民黨開的,所以說,癥結不在這裡,並非政治控制或指揮司法的問題。然而,李慶安詐欺無罪,卻很難不讓人聯想起威瑪的政治司法:明知雙重國籍者不可擔任公職、卻公開以此鬥爭他人、自己卻早知未失美國籍的民代,法院竟可用「無主動誠實告知外國籍的義務」、「具外國籍者不見得與對我國之效忠義務對立」、「既執行職務便無詐欺」、「不具詐領故意」來論證!明知法律禁止,仍刻意隱瞞違禁事實而獲取利益,這不叫詐欺,又叫什麼呢?就算詐欺罪成立困難,沒有任何非難性指摘,也是對此案的正確態度嗎?

1922年,著名猶太裔記者與劇作家哈登,在柏林遭兩次欲置之死地的暴力攻擊。審判中,法官不斷質疑與嘲弄被害人,最後判決兩名兇手極輕的傷害罪,完全放過背後的教唆集團。一名觀察審判的記者寫道:這不是壞的司法,這不是有瑕疵的司法,這根本不是司法...巴爾幹與南美諸國,將會對這樣的德國敬謝不敏,因為,你們德國人將因跟謀殺者的同流合污而淪喪...脫離人民的素樸法感,顛覆對正義的認知,一心只想開脫違法的法官,怎不可對威瑪的政治司法引以為戒呢?

(作者為政治大學法律學系助理教授)

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