台灣媒體自由排名為何直直落?

2011-07-08

@黃秀端

當塑化劑風波愈演愈烈時,媒體也鋪天蓋地的報導,多家著名廠商被點名其產品含有塑化劑。然而突然之間,相關報導幾乎銷聲匿跡。是問題解決了嗎?顯然不是,成千上萬的產品仍排隊等著檢驗。是誰讓報導消失了?是政府想掩飾他的無能?還是財團想封媒體的嘴?兩者都有可能。此現象也可能解釋為何我國媒體自由排名會不斷下降。

解嚴之後,台灣媒體如雨後春筍般的出現,媒體環境也越來越自由。2008年全球排名第32,是有史以來最好的一次,自此就連續下滑三年,2009年大幅下降為43名,2010為47名,2011年為48名。

2009年自由之家的報告中除了指出,陳雲林訪台期間,台灣兩極對立惡化,政府與非政府行為者都企圖對編輯內容施壓,並對記者攻擊,是新聞自由倒退的主因。但該報告還提到馬政府任命其競選發言人羅智強為中央社副社長,企圖控制報導的內容,該社對政府批評的報導因而顯著下降亦是排名下滑之因。由於台灣媒體對於外電報導常仰賴中央社的翻譯,中央社自然將對其不利的說詞加以省略,因此其他媒體也都沒有報導。

2010年持續下滑的原因除原有理由並未消失外,自由之家更點名旺旺集團購買中時集團後,對該報的報導內容不時施壓,降低對大陸和馬政府的批評。有些媒體也會自我檢查,對某些主題如西藏、新疆、法論功的報導都會特別小心,以免踩到中國的紅線。自由之家因此擔心由於龐大商機之故,台灣媒體越來越受中國的影響。另外,金融海嘯之後,媒體經營的環境越來越惡劣,業配新聞越來越多。政府不時運用置入性行銷,或是企業主動輒以抽廣告為要脅,影響媒體報導內容。

2011年台灣評比持續下降,對政黨報導的兩極化繼續存在、公共電視的董監事爭議、雖然修法規定不能置入性行銷,但置入性行銷更形嚴重。中時記者黃哲斌的辭職,更凸顯此事之嚴重性。監委吳豐山也曾對政府新聞置入性行銷以及中國置入性行銷廣告提出調查報告及糾正案。

當政府與業者甚至對海峽兩岸只要花錢就能影響新聞,讀者看到的新聞到底是真是假?人們知的權利在那裡?新聞自由乃民主國家重要之一環,若沒有新聞記者鍥而不捨的追蹤各種新聞,我們如何知道事情的真相?政府又如何能受到有效監督?全球新聞自由度最高的為芬蘭、挪威及瑞典,他們同時也是最清廉的國家,由此,我們不難看到新聞自由之重要性。

(作者為東吳大學政治學系教授)

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