官僚專制,民主淪喪

2011-02-18

@徐世榮

楊志良前署長告電視名嘴,讓人相當錯愕,也深感行政官僚的傲慢與缺乏民主素養,其隱藏更為嚴重的問題乃為我國行政官僚於政策制訂的保守及偏差思維。在二十一世紀的當下,彼等竟然仍死守二十世紀初期的想法,純然將複雜的社會問題簡化為科學問題。

許多學者不斷的提醒,現代社會其實是個「風險社會」,我們根本無法完全及精準的預測未來的風險,接種疫苗也是如此,它是有風險的,在這種情況下,誰要來承擔接種疫苗的風險其實是個相當主觀的問題,這必須在資訊充分提供之下,由風險的承擔者自己來做決定。但是我們的行政官僚卻不這麼想,彼等把科學或醫學的研究形塑成客觀中立的機制,主張它們是不容質疑及反對的,只要是與其不同,就是「謠言」或「不實」。

眾所皆知,科學知識有其不確定性,科學技術的可靠性也有其一定的限度,這使得科學家面對日益複雜的高科技,其預測風險的能力也會相對降低。再者,這些科學研究與預測通常是建構於許多假設之上,它往往是受到研究者主觀立場的影響,這進而使得科學專家所認定的風險,與實際生活經驗者的感受有了相當大的差距。

然而,權力或利益的擁有者為了掌控政策的決定權,往往故意扭曲,過渡強調科技專家的角色,例如,把疫苗接種問題純然轉化為科學問題,並要完全仰賴專家決定,以此來剝奪民眾自主的選擇權力。對於這種扭曲我們不能接受,其隱藏的是官僚專制,檢方倘若接受了楊前署長的提告,將嚴重宣示台灣民主的全面倒退!

我們主張疫苗接種是否安全的問題必須要結合醫學與社會人文、日常理性與專家理性來共同論述,它不能透過個別專業化而彼此孤立,而是必須跨越學科及團體來尋取共識,在這當中,民眾的選擇必須給予充分的尊重,並將其納入風險評估之中。疫苗接種是個社會、風險、健康及安全的重要議題,它不應由科技及醫學專家所獨占,而是必須併入於民主的溝通論述過程,經由理性之對話及討論,由此來共同決定它的方向。

(作者為政治大學地政學系教授)

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