未能道法自然 人類安得永續

2010-12-17

@陳章波

地球養育著眾多的生命,人類只是其中之一,為求永續當以生命為中心,進行通盤考量:有形而上的指導,再做到形而下的實際操作。針對自然環境的議題,首先應進行全局思考,從自然界的氣圈、生命圈、水圈、地圈之間的能量流、物質流、資訊流到人類的文化圈與資訊圈,通通要一併考量。有一點值得注意的是,自然的資訊圈不會騙人,只要認真的讀就會讀懂,但人的資訊圈包含了騙人、放話…等現象,所以要特別注意並小心明辨。
全局思考要包含人類的永續、生命的適應與全球氣候變遷三大面向,人類的永續主要是要考量飲食、男女、安全,生命的適應在於懂得生命本質,若對生命不尊重,僅是以錢作為考量,就失去了生命為重的基礎核心理念及作為。在人類進入自然系統後,加進了兩個流—鈔票流與選票流,並創造人造法作為辦事的依據,但當人造法與自然法有所衝突時,應該依自然法為準。因此當全球氣候變遷問題日趨頻繁嚴重,修法工作耗費時日,成文法跟不上,原有的有效對策也會被打亂,所以制訂法規要有彈性。
全球氣候變遷會造成什麼樣的影響?溫室氣體在海岸、溼地之間會有什麼樣的變化?這些都是值得深入探討的議題。當海水入侵淡水感潮帶後,淡水植物無法存活,但海水提供了相對豐富的硫,使得海岸溼地不會像淡水溼地一般產生溫室氣體—甲烷。在這利弊之間會形成什麼樣的平衡點,是我們不清楚的地方,此時就需要道法自然,探究這些自然界的變化現象。
當我們有全盤的瞭解後,就會有個形而上的準則就是「道法自然」,但我們形而下的操作仍然來自於自然的器物,是為「盜伐自然」。我們的文化早就提到「盜亦有道」,砍伐、盜奪的過程應該要有道理即是適可而止,如此地球、人類及眾生命才得以永續,可是現在將這些轉換成錢,盜亦無道的情況下,資源將被持續消耗完畢。因此我們應該要將自然營造力、生命力、人的意志力三力統一,一併考量,並且利用保育、復育、教育、群育、美育五育並進的方式,做到道法自然,讓人類永續的存在。

(作者為中央研究院生物多樣性研究中心退休研究員)

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