情緒壓制理性的媒體與社會

2010-12-10

@瞿海源

諾貝爾和平獎頒給被中國關在牢裡的劉曉波,中國政府至今不能接受,劉氏家屬被非法地看守住,不得到挪威領獎。在和平獎一宣布,中國民眾就群情憤慨,有人居然高喊抵制挪貨,更有人當街燒燬日本村上春樹的挪威森林。兩年前西藏事件,西方國家及輿論聲援藏人,國內外中國人也是群情憤慨,嚇得在北京的外國人不敢談論西藏事。

在亞運,我國跆拳選手楊淑君被判電子襪失格,喪失奪得金牌機會,消息傳來,群情激憤,體委副主委被攻擊發言失當被迫辭職,有民眾向在台韓國學校丟雞蛋,也有民眾抵制韓貨,竟然也有政府首長說早就看不順眼韓國人。只是因為裁判是韓國籍,韓國什麼都不對了。

在五都選舉前一晚,連戰之子國民黨連勝文在站台助選演講時,遭人槍擊,國民黨人群情激憤,有國民黨立委和名嘴直接或影射綠色奧步,甚至呼籲用選票制裁暴力。結果激出不少國民黨支持者出來投藍的票。槍擊案發生至今沒有任何一點證據顯示和政治有關,更和泛綠無關,可是為什麼就有選民情緒性地因為國民黨的連勝文龍槍擊就去跳出來投藍的票。

縱觀中國和台灣這些大大小小的事件,我們看到的是群眾情緒壓制了理性,在與國際有關的事件中,群情憤慨就會被導向狹隘的民族主義,引發進一步群眾情緒性行動。在國內政治競選等緊張態勢下,突發的暴力事件也容易激發選民非理性的投票行為。

群情之所以激憤,主要是媒體的報導和評論煽動的。媒體報導的多半不是簡單的事實,大多在報導中夾帶著主觀的判斷和立場,在評論時,更是迫不及待地標示了鮮明的立場,情緒化地去誇大事實甚至非事實。尤其是事實不明的狀況下,媒體的影響力就更大,因為民眾無法判斷,媒體卻有很大的想像乃至隨意猜測的空間。媒體的評論節目本來應該是理性的去除情緒化的重要機制,但是名嘴本身多是很情緒化而不理性的,尤其在各自盤據的媒體罔顧事實大放厥詞。

情緒化不能解決問題,甚至會使狀況惡化,我們的媒體和社會亟需增多理性的空間,少一些情緒化的操弄。

(作者為中研院社會所研究員)

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