公民監督與責任政治

2010-11-26

@顧忠華

即將登場的五都三合一選舉,除了鎂光燈焦點的市長候選人之外,還有市議員及里長,滿街的旗幟說明了地方民代及基層公職的競爭十分激烈,不輸給五都市長。根據中選會統計,五都市議員參選人數共有647人,競逐314席次,而里長則有7254人角逐3758個名額,這顯示各級選舉都充滿了張力,也反映台灣實踐民主的活力十足。

不過,就在投票前夕,法務部表示已受理 2704樁選舉案件,被檢方聲請羈押獲准的人數達100人。我們切盼檢調單位能儘快有效遏止涉及金錢和暴力的選舉歪風,否則等玩弄不正當手段的政客當選後,再祭出各種廉政措施來嚇阻不法,恐怕根本無濟於事,何況馬總統承諾通過的不少陽光法案還躺在立法院,「道」一尺也沒高,「魔」的功力倒可能悄悄升高了。

一般說來,憲政民主的制度設計中,權力的相互制衡是防弊的重要機制,立法機關代表人民監督行政部門,司法機關則應該不問政黨、顏色,捍衛正義的防線。但衡諸先進國家的經驗,公民意識的普遍覺醒,乃是督促制衡機制真正發生作用的關鍵力量。而台灣的公民社會蓬勃發展,在民主的鞏固和深化方面,所扮演的角色日益突顯,尤其在對民意代表的監督與課責上,這幾年有著具體的成效,逐漸翻轉了過去選民只作投票日當天的「頭家」,選出代表之後,卻完全無法節制代議者的無奈心態。

譬如這星期開始,立法院決議休會四天,俾便立委們投入輔選,但休會輔選並非憲法賦予立委的職權,因此公民監督國會聯盟發函要求立委捐出四天薪水,以符合「不自肥」的基本規範。此一發自公民社會的呼籲,得到民進黨團的善意回應,宣佈捐出共八十萬元予三個弱勢團體,公督盟也立即表達欣慰和肯定。國民黨則是有少數立委響應,惟黨團不願採取集體行動,多少令人遺憾。

由上述的例子,可看出公民權的行使,絕不僅止於投下一張選票,還包括持續地關注公職人員及民意代表是否善盡職責,完成選民的託付。五都的選民們,選舉結束後,更要睜大眼睛,好好發揮監督的力量,同心協力打造成熟負責的民主政治。

(作者為公民監督國會聯盟理事長)

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