「立法院應提案釋憲的,何只選區十年不變」

2010-08-27

@黃國昌

依憲法增修條文第四條之規定,立委選舉其選區之分布,應將定額之選區總數按人口比例分配予各縣市,以期符合一人一票、票票等值的民主原則。不過,在相同亦受憲法保障的人民遷徙自由現實下,各行政區之人口勢必隨著人民遷徙而變動。為解決此一問題,契合憲法明訂選區按人口比例分配之原則,公職人員選罷法建立由中選會在每屆選舉前,依人口變動提出選區變更案送立院審議之機制。
孰料,8月19日立法院臨時會三讀通過國民黨籍立委所提出之選罷法修正案,將立委名額分配及選舉區劃分固定以第七屆立委為準,每十年重新檢討一次。如此一來,在這十年間所進行之立委選舉,其席次分配勢必無法反映任何的人口流動,潛藏立委選區未依人口比例分配之高度危機,違反票票等值的憲政價值,已產生重大違憲疑慮。此案通過,輿論大嘩,不只在野人士紛紛抗議國民黨立委將政治利益置於憲法之上的作為,連國民黨內若干立委亦表示無法接受,並表示將連署進行釋憲。
我們欣見國民黨立委串連聲請釋憲之舉,這代表國民黨內仍有一股知道反省的聲音。然而,我們必須指出,本次臨時會製造之違憲怪物,並非僅有選區十年不變;ECFA協議文本第11條之「兩岸經濟合作委員會」,更是嚴重。
該條文將「解釋本協議之規定」等性質上根本不得委託私人行使之公權力,授權由屬於民間團體的海基會與對岸海協會共組之「兩岸經合會」所掌握,在「成員結構」、「組成方式」、「運作方式」以及「監督機制」完全規範空白的情形下,竟使「兩岸經合會」實際上享有影響ECFA運作的高度政治權力。我們在立院審議之前,即已針對此條文提出嚴重的違憲警告。面對我們的質疑,經濟部長施顏祥卻僅能表示該委員會是功能性的、非常態性的,像「變形蟲」的組織型態,並視議題而進行任務編組,試圖藉此臨時任務編組而非常設組織之脫詞,規避違憲爭議。但是,我們必須再次嚴正指出,該條文所造成之違憲關鍵在於該組織建制所「行使的權力」與「發揮的作用」,並非僅僅是「組織常設與否」。
我們再次鄭重呼籲:立法院內的有識之士,除了選罷法選區調整凍結一案之外,更應將ECFA協議文本第11條一併提請釋憲,以維護憲政秩序,捍衛憲法價值。

(作者為澄社社長;中央研究院法律所副研究員)

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