馬總統的「司改空白」

2010-7-19

@瞿海源、黃國昌

法國國王路易十六的私人日記,在1789年7月14日(法國大革命爆發日)中的記載為「Nothing」;2010年的今日,回顧馬總統在已逾過半任期中就「司法改革」具體積極作為的成績單上,雖非完全空白,但也是相去不遠的「Almost Nothing」!

儘管中研院社會所2008年第二次社會意向調查已清楚顯示,有過半數的受訪民眾認為司法不公正、判決不公平;儘管澄社於2009年3月20日發表「司法改革十年之省思」的澄社評論中,已公開呼籲馬政府應虛心檢討自1999年全國司法改革會議後十年來司法改革的實際成效,在回顧過去與前瞻未來的關鍵時刻,有魄力地繼續推動司法改革;儘管在中研院法律所於去年7月舉辦之「司法改革十週年的回顧與展望」論壇中,對於十年來還在原地踏步之「法官、檢察官的評鑑制度與退場機制」等關鍵問題,各界代表多有表達馬總統應以總統的高度調和鼎鼐,使政府各部門捐棄本位成見,排除改革路障的呼聲;儘管法界與社運界的團體代表,曾於去年年底拜會馬總統,表達人民對司法改革的殷切期望,並請求馬總統仿效日本成立「司法改革委員會」,有計劃而持續地推動司法改革。儘管一切的一切,令關心司法改革的有識之士心寒的是,我們的馬總統雖非根本充耳不聞,卻表現的完全像個「官僚至極的高級文官」,除了將皮球踢給司法院及法務部之外,根本不見積極具體作為。馬總統似乎已全然忘記在競選時,曾出席「馬蕭支持司法改革聯盟」並簽署司法改革七項宣言,作出包括「推動多元、專業的司法官評鑑制度」等多項承諾。

在日前驚傳高等法院法官發生集體貪瀆收賄嫌疑之後,在相當長的一段時間已不再受媒體青睞的司法改革議題,突然地再度占據各大傳媒的版面。總統當然不能像擅於炒短線的媒體一樣,等到腫瘤爆出了爛膿,才意識到問題的嚴重性;不過,如果當連媒體都已認知到大力進行司法改革已刻不容緩時,我們的馬總統卻還僅僅只是作出「司法改革應拿出具體辦法,其中《法官法》的立法,對司法官評鑑等退場機制很重要」此等全世界都早已知道的無關痛癢表示,馬總統對司法改革無論是「誠摯的輕忽」抑或是「認真的無知」,均貼切地印證了金恩博士(Dr. Martin Luther King)所言 “Nothing in the world is more dangerous than sincere ignorance and conscientious stupidity”。

當以推動通過「刑事妥適審判法」自豪並自認已積極推動「法官法」的司法院賴英照院長已因民間與法官同僚要求其下台的強烈聲浪而辭職時,馬總統對於司法改革此項議題卻還洋洋自得地表示「任內已通過速審法,且行政部門已同意法官法草案而正在會商考試院」,我們對於馬總統在司法改革的表現更是失望透頂!我們必須指出,縱然法官法的立法不是司法改革的全部,但如果司法院長必須對此事負責的話,掌握更大權力、更有能力推動改革的總統,更有負責的必要。畢竟,司法院在推動法官法時,不僅面臨了來自檢察系統的阻力,更遭遇了考試院的掣肘,其中亦介在立法委員因自身利害關係而被迫消極反對的複雜因素,法官法的一拖再拖,司法院高層固有無可迴避的責任,但身兼總統與掌握四分之三國會席次的執政黨主席馬英九先生,實必須負起更重的責任。我們無法想像,連ECFA這種具有高度爭議、引發社會強烈對立的法案,馬總統均能排除一切阻力,強勢主導通過,對於法官必須接受監督與淘汰這種具有高度社會共識的法案,馬總統如果有心,怎麼可能到今天還繼續在立法程序中流浪?如果賴英照應該為此下台,那我們的馬總統呢?

如果馬總統繼續對司法改革採取這種毫不重視、漫不經心的態度,我們鄭重建請馬總統於2012年競選連任時,切勿提出任何與司法改革有關的政見。因為任何政見的提出,等於是在逼問馬總統自己,在掌握國家完全權力的四年,你為什麼不作?你又作了什麼?

(作者瞿海源為中央研究院社會所研究員;澄社前社長)
(作者黃國昌為中央研究院法律所副研究員;澄社社長)

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