反公投的反動論述

2010-6-18

@徐永明

最近關於台聯ECFA公投提案被行政院公審會否決一事,引起學界與社運界的諸多辯論,其中有關於台聯提案邏輯的問題,也有關於公審會否決適法性的問題,到底公投法賦予公審會的權力範圍為何?公審會委員的是在幫助人民遂行公投,還是在指導,甚至是阻礙人民公投的進行?

簡言之,這部公投法立法精神為何?而馬政府所謂不反對人民公投的真實政治立場又是什麼?而公審會否決台聯公投案是從台灣民主前景出發,還是黨派計算,甚至純粹反公投而已。其實,這是一個好機會,在諸多反公投的「反動論述」中,釐清台灣公投民主體制建立困難的所在。

首先,老實說,這部公投法制訂背景就是在公投vs.反公投鬥爭下的妥協產物,所以才會有諮詢性公投非法化的規定,怕的就是潮洲「民調公投」如野火般燒開:如果澎湖可以公投賭博,潮洲為什麼不能公投ECFA。當然,一個違反公投法的說詞,就可以結束了諮詢性公投對台灣民主助力可能的討論。

同樣的,幾次ECFA公投提案會被否決的原因,就在於公審會擴權進行實質審查的結果,而這個有違法疑義的實質審查,卻不在於幫助民眾形成一個更妥善的公投案,反而淪為在公投案正反雙方選邊站的表決大戰,其實公審會一開始採政黨比例,而主席喜歡透過表決來決議就埋下了公審會爭議的因子,數十年後回顧公審會的表現與委員的言行,做為民主時代的「警總」對人民提案進行審查,肯定會在台灣民主發展史留下一筆。

其實,最根本的反民主規範就是台灣公投法的高門檻規定,除了兩次人民連署的沈重負擔,美其名為人民作主之外,投票率的二分之一公民數高門檻,才是公投法反民主的利器,回顧過去幾次交付人民公投提案的失敗,不在於反對多於贊成,而在於投票率遭杯葛而不成案,尤其將不投票解讀為反對,是最邪惡的反動論述了。

這就是公投法之所以成為「鳥籠」的法理原因,也因此台聯提案的邏輯問題不會危害台灣的民主,反而是透過這個鳥籠不斷打壓所累積的社會怨恨,才是台灣現行代議民主危機的所在。

惡法也是有邏輯的,過去的戒嚴體制也是有法理基礎的,不過當時辯護與幫閒的,也都有了公正的歷史裁判:就是被遺忘。

(東吳大學政治系助理教授)

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