台灣雙首長制走到盡頭

2010-1-15
◎ 徐永明

目前關於台灣政情的討論,大多集中在馬英九總統滿意度的低落,以及從八八水災、美牛風波,乃至新流感疫苗的爭議,讓民眾對政府的施政缺乏信心,近日關於地制法的「妥協」爭議,不過是強化了人民對馬政府的不信任感。

一個喪失威望的總統竟在執政黨的中常會,以黨主席的身份指揮國會發起臨時會,而針對性的法案竟是充滿爭議的地制法:讓現任鄉鎮長與鄉鎮市民代延任區長與區諮委。這樣一個舉動姑不論其政治後果如何,但是其憲政層次的衝擊則是相當嚴重的:如果臨時會中,地制法如馬英九願通過,這不代表人民重新信任馬英九,而是總統的手重新控制了其佔四分之三席次的立委;但是如果無法通過,或是回到官派與無給職的原點,那麼不只馬個人威信再次重創,而是一個六成選票的直選總統在不到兩年的任期後,繼美牛案馬失前蹄之後,立即而長久地跛腳了!

這代表在九七修憲之後,雖然立法院對行政院長的同意權讓渡為總統的任命權,以為是總統擴權,行政院長成為幕僚長,雙首長制向總統傾斜。殊不知,自李登輝、陳水扁乃至馬英九三任實踐的經驗,同時繳械的覆議權,才是蘊含國會獨大的契機,導致今日一個兼任黨主席的總統,在其一黨獨大的國會寸步難行。

李登輝時代的困擾是任命行政院長受到同黨籍立委的勒索,同時擔心行政院長獲得國會支持威脅總統的權力,所以雖然總統兼黨主席,仍然要把閣揆同意權與副署修掉,以維持行政權的一頭獨大,卻將總統否決權妥協掉,導致今日馬英九屢遭國民黨立委叛變的威脅。

至於,陳水扁時代,民進黨由於無法在國會單獨過半,所以國會的困擾被簡化為在野黨的反對,總統對國會的失控成為常態。這解釋了馬英九為何在選前誇言不會兼任黨主席,天真以為國民黨立委必然支持國民黨總統,忽略了國會議員在選制改為單一席次後對民意的敏感性。所以,不到一半任期,在監察與考試兩院提名失利之後,以毀諾為代價硬要兼任黨主席,以為控制黨就有了國會,而忽略行政否決權的淪喪才是憲政要害。

所以,如果說馬英九時代對台灣民主化有什麼貢獻,大概不在於崇禎之流的類比,或是修一個絕對多數的總統選制,而是自九七修憲之後,行政雖然向總統集權,但是立法行政關係卻是大幅向立法院傾斜,單一選區更強化這個趨勢。

陳水扁時期,這個立法獨大趨勢被誤以為藍綠對抗,馬英九時代才知雙首長走到盡頭,是開始思量憲法大翻修的憲政時刻了!

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