如何寄望災後重建?

2009-9-4
◎ 劉靜怡

「莫拉克颱風災後重建特別條例」,短短三天內便通過。這部在立法過程中幾乎看不見「災民主體性」的特別法,畢竟已經成為賦予政府至少在未來三年內極多行政管制權限的依據,我們到底該不該對這個特別條例有所寄望和期待呢?

本條例第一條第二項開宗明義便規定「本條例未規定者,依災害防救法及其他相關法律之規定辦理。但其他法律規定較本條例更有利於災後重建者,適用最有利之法律。重建地區位於原住民族地區者,並應依原住民族基本法相關規定辦理」,這段立法文字背後,隱含了極為複雜難解的法律適用關係。究竟,四種立法目的不同的法律—包括本重建特別條例、災害防救法、原住民族基本法、以及不知其所指為何的「更有利於災後重建之法律」—的適用,如何才能真正符合災民利益,應該根據哪個法律、哪些標準、由誰來決定?舉例而言,本條例第四條所規定的「災後重建推動委員會」執掌上述法律執行與適用任務,這個在本條例通過前即已便宜行事成立、被批評為代表性不足的委員會,本身便已遭遇欠缺成立法源的問題,在條例通過之後,應該立即解散,依據本條例第四條的規定重新組成,才能符合馬總統「依法行政」的法治形式主義要求,但卻看不到該委員會有任何重組的跡象。即使重組後的災後重建委員會,符合本條例第四條「災民及原住民代表,合計不得少於五分之一」的規定,其是否符合原住民族基本法關於原住民參與原住民族相關事務審議推動的最低要求,仍有爭議空間。

其次,本條例規定中空有宣示意義、難以執行者甚多。以備受爭議的「強制遷村」規定為例,本條例第二十條規定的「經與原住居者諮商取得共識」,在原住居者具有原住民族身分時,如何符合原住民族基本法的要求,以及本條例宣示的「尊重多元文化」特色,便疑點重重。試問:所謂原住民族的「共識」,究竟如何有效地依原住民族真正的自主意志形成?抑或,以目前原住民族人流離失所、極端弱勢的現狀來說,所謂的取得共識,反而會成為原住民族集體遭外力崩解的導火線?從原住民族基本法第二十一條和第二十五條早已分別規定的「政府或法令限制原住民族利用原住民族之土地及自然資源時,應與原住民族或原住民諮商,並取得其同意」、「政府應建立原住民族地區天然災害防護及善後制度,並劃設天然災害防護優先區,保障原住民族生命財產安全」來看,本條例的嚴峻挑戰,不因立法完成而結束,而是正要開始。(作者為台大國發所法律組專任副教授)

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