完全反民主執政

2009-7-18
◎ 瞿海源

在經歷八年少數政府的困境之後,行政立法全都由國民黨掌控似乎可脫出八年困境,但是當今執政當局聲稱完全執政,一年多來很明顯地帶引台灣走向反民主的方向。從集遊法的修訂、公務人員行政中立法的訂定,到兩岸關係不受國會監督、馬英九總統急於兼任國民黨主席、乃至馬政府搞有品運動,還有眾多行政部門和立法機構的決策與作為都在在與民主背道而馳。

有關各項立法與行政決策的問題,至今已有眾多批判和論述,在這裡,我們要推究何以整體情勢會發展至此。最主要的仍在於馬英九完全執政的佈局愈來愈走向集權而不自知。

馬英九自以為贏得總統選舉,總統的政見已經為多數選民同意,而總統的政見也必須實現。這完全曲解選舉與民主的關係。選民只是在候選人之中選出總統而已,並不見得就同意候選人的政見,因為選民並不是對政見進行投票。同時政見極多,支持者也不全都同意。馬英九諸多決策,尤其是兩岸政策,多挾總統勝選餘威視反對意見如無物,就是誤認為選舉獲勝就獲得了一切,就可以完全執政。

馬總統急於兼任黨主席,就在於具有國民黨長期威權政治所養成的集權性格。以黨主席的身分,像兩蔣一樣,就可以號令天下。名「正」言「順」地強化對行政的控制,對立法的介入。雖然行政院已是在總統府的指導下運作,但透過黨機器,兼任黨主席的總統更可直接指揮行政部門。國民黨控制了立法院,同時馬總統也已經介入立法,但是畢竟兼任黨主席以後就可以更理「直」氣「壯」地全面控制立法院。民主政治最重要的制衡機制被馬英九破壞無遺,形成馬總統完全執政:立法院監督行政院,國民黨控制立法院,總統兼任黨主席來控制國民黨,最後馬英九就完全直接控制國民黨、控制立法、控制行政。

馬英九完全執政帶來台灣民主政治發展的大後退乃至大災難,但是顯然在短時間之內沒有任何力量可以阻擋。然而馬總統完全執政這種違逆民主的濫權作為,將引發愈來愈多的問題,激發愈來愈強的反對動能。民主制度下的總統,終究是要受到民主的約制!(作者為中研院社會學研究所研究員)

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