政府眼中的漢生病人權問題

◎ 劉靜怡

「漢生病病患人權保障及補償條例」(以下簡稱「漢生條例」)在立法院立法進度不斷延宕、高齡漢生病人日漸凋零的情況下,終於在去年以不盡理想的內容通過實施。

本條例正式實施至今,衛生署對於如何責成各地方衛生局協助漢生病患申請補償金一事,作法過於消極,以致於至今仍有不少仍健在的漢生病患,不知自己權益為何,或者不知如何申請補償,必須求助教會和人權團體。甚至,在各地衛生局受理申請補償金過程中,還出現濫用漢生病患個人病歷資料,以及公衛人員對於漢生病基於錯誤認知和恐懼而採取不當舉措的現象,造成病患和家屬再度承受污名化的困擾,這根本是衛生主管機關漠視漢生補償條例意義的失職之處。更嚴重的是,截至目前為止,已經出現數起在衛生署審查完竣之前死亡,而衛生署逕以不符漢生條例第五條第一項規定「於中華民國三十四年十月廿五日至本條例施行前罹患漢生病而現仍生存者」駁回申請的錯誤個案,衛生署處理申請個案的施恩態度和粗率手法,更令人吃驚。

漢生條例所規定的補償金請求權,目的在於補償漢生病人過去所受的身心痛苦,雖有不能讓與繼承扣押或供擔保的一身專屬權性質,但依本法意旨,身心痛苦的補償請求權一經當事人向公權力機關以意思表示行使,就已經從非財產之損害賠償請求權轉變為受金額賠償之權利,進而成為可以繼承的財產權。民法第一九五條二項也有相類似的規定。因此,第五條「現仍生存者」與第九條一身專屬權的立法真意應該是:「行使請求權時」,必須仍為生存之人;行使請求權前已死亡者,不得由其繼承人代為請求。

衛生署的審查認定與通知,不應該理解為「創設權利」的行政處分,因為漢生病患得受補償的權利是由本法所創設,不是由主管機關創設,衛生署只負責確認「是否在三十四年十月廿五日至本條例施行前曾罹患漢生病」,以及「是否曾在某段期間住院」二者而已。這並不以當事人是否生存為做成之前提,即使當事人已死亡,行政機關還是可以做成確認的行政處分。確認之後,必須依照法律所創設的國家義務向當事人本人或其繼承人為給付,不因為當事人提出申請後死亡而受影響。這麼簡單的法律解釋問題,衛生署真的無力處理嗎?若是如此,請問尊重漢生病患人權的誠意何在?

(作者為台大國發所法律組副教授)

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