人權狀況 近墨者黑

◎ 盧世祥

聯合國人權理事會本週審查中國人權狀況。在中國遞交其首份人權狀況報告之後,開發中國家大致稱讚中國在經濟發展和消減貧窮的進展,西方國家則關注新疆、圖博問題及廣泛的公民、政治權利。中國宣稱,它正在準備「第一份」國家人權行動計畫。國際人權團體就此回應,在鎮壓天安門民主運動之後二十年,中國仍繼續迫害政治異議人士,壓制新聞自由,也未能善待法輪功、維吾爾族與圖博人民。

另一方面,中國顯然說一套、做一套。異議人士劉曉波因參與起草「零八憲章」,為中國人民請命,提出修改憲法、司法獨立、保障人權、軍隊國家化及集會結社自由等訴求,於去年十二月初聯合國世界人權宣言簽署六十週年紀念日前夕被關押。儘管包括前捷克總統哈維爾等國際間要求放人的呼籲不斷,標榜「禁止酷刑、公正審判」的中國當局,對劉曉波至今既未給一個控告的罪名,也沒有進入正式審判程序。尤有甚者,知名維權律師高智晟近日傳出在獄中遭到毒打、電擊和被煙頭燙鼻、眼的酷刑折磨消息。難怪民主人士王丹批評,中國在人權理事會的說詞是「一派胡言」,作家戴晴也直指其為不值得相信的「官話、套話」。

中國的言行不一,不信守國際承諾,幾成慣性。在去年北京奧運之前,中國曾經承諾改善人權,放寬新聞自由。不過,包括保護記者委員會等國際人權團體最近指出,中國的奧運承諾沒有兌現,人權與新聞自由狀況並無任何改善,過去一年反而加緊箝制包括網路等媒體,維持「關捕記者最多的國家」惡名。正由於政府未能善待中國人民,在當前全球金融危機衝擊之下,其經濟社會潛藏的矛盾有引爆之虞;達賴喇嘛前天在德國警告,圖博情勢「非常緊張」,可能發生暴動。一個一黨專政、民主人權嚴重欠缺的中國,不但難以建構和諧的文明社會,也不能成就令世人尊敬的大國。

與這樣一個鄰邦相處,而且是千方百計要把我國併吞為其一部分的專制國家,台灣人對中國的民主人權狀況,不能抱持事不關己的態度。以前的老國民黨政府,喊出「和平轉變」,資助中國民運人士;民進黨當家,也對中國民主發展樂觀其成。如今台灣新黨國當局,對共黨專政政府未能善待中國人民,非但噤若寒蟬,即連達賴喇嘛這位世人尊崇的宗教領袖,也因唯恐得罪中國而被列為入境台灣黑名單。更嚴重的是,在馬英九政府執政、國共加緊合作之後,台灣自由限縮、人權倒退,從自由之家、無疆界記者組織到美國國會與學術界,都對台灣民主不進反退表示關切。此一讓台灣向下沉淪的發展,猶如中國統治學北韓,「近墨者黑」,即箇中之道理也。

(作者為資深新聞工作者)

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