吃膩的年菜

◎王泰俐

根據政治傳播的學理,政治醜聞的定義主要牽涉兩大要素,一是政治權力的運作,二是醜聞事件的本質。當一醜聞涉及握有政治實權的政治人物,同時醜聞事件的本質牽涉到全民共同利益時,才構成真正的政治醜聞。

在民主國家,政治醜聞通常會歷經幾個階段的發展,包括醞釀期、合理化期、高峰期,最後來到衰退期。在高峰期的階段,一方面媒體瘋狂地披露醜聞的任何細節,另一方面涉入醜聞的政治人物也會竭盡全力為自己的行為與名譽辯解,兩相激盪下,形成公眾的輿論判斷。最後進入司法審判階段時,通常也已進入醜聞的衰退期。

以前總統陳水扁所涉及的幾項案件為例,雖然主角早已下野,不再握有政治實權,但因事件涉及公共利益,確實也符合政治醜聞的要件,因此引發國內外媒體的大幅報導。然而以此醜聞的發展階段而論,已經歷經兩年的高峰期,卻被無限期地延長至今。根據筆者的政論節目內容分析研究,截至去年年底,這個醜聞每天仍然佔據各大政論節目的頭條議題,比例高達將近八成!即使早已進入司法審判階段,許多媒體與政治人物,卻仍竭盡全力不讓此案件進入衰退期,其政治操作之斧鑿斑斑,早已脫離民主國家自由媒體的運作法則。至於為何要無限期延長一則政治醜聞的壽命?政治人物的動機不外乎出於特定政治目的,例如摧毀對方陣營的公眾形象,或者掩飾自身政治行動或施政的失敗。

至於媒體的動機就頗令人玩味。如以媒體市場的商業利益考量,觀眾口味通常喜新厭舊,可見此醜聞的媒體炒作已超乎尋常邏輯。是否經濟蕭條到媒體收益必須大幅依賴政府置入行銷的預算,為了討好當權者以拿到標案,符合當權者口味的歹戲因此不能落幕?還是台灣地區的觀眾收視已非第一優先考量,為新聞節目之外的戲劇或綜藝節目打入中國市場考量,新聞節目必須配合演出以迎合中國官方口味?尤有甚者,少數標榜本土聲音、不炒作本案的政論節目,即使收視長紅,卻面臨週末版年前先被腰斬,開春後又被迫向電視台繳回節目製作權的命運,重重內幕,背後黑手呼之欲出。

總之,一則觀眾早已厭倦的醜聞,卻好像過年吃膩的年菜,每天被硬炒成新菜上桌,真令人難以下嚥!

(作者為台灣大學新聞所副教授)

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