風險國家下的總統角色

顧忠華/政大社會系教授、澄社執委

德國社會學家貝克曾經提出過「風險社會」的概念,用來指出現代的高科技會帶來不可測的高風險,而目前的知識其實還無法評估這些風險可能發生的機率,以及風險一旦發生,將會造成多大的損害。包括核能災難、全球暖化等等危機,都意味著「風險分配」已經成為「財富分配」之外的重大議題,需要全人類共同努力來加以防治。

依台灣的發展情勢,當然適用「風險社會」的範疇,所以最近總統候選人第一次的辯論會中,不少提問的公民便針對環境問題特別著墨。不過,台灣未來將會面臨的種種挑戰裡,恐怕最重要的仍是「國家定位」不明的「風險」。換句話說,台灣由於在國際社會被「一個中國」的魔咒束縛得不能動彈,因此始終無法以「正常」的國家身份參與各個層級的全球治理,淪為全世界絕無僅有的「棄兒」。

台灣這種特殊的國際地位,轉換到國內的政黨立場,也形成了「統」和「獨」的光譜,乃至產生「國家認同」的錯亂。這令我們愈來愈理解到,台灣根本是一個「風險國家」,必須不斷地應付國內外接踵而來的打擊與分化,如日前南韓拒絕我國特使參加新總統就職典禮,台灣內部竟有人主張本來就不應該以「國家」為名義,只要用「政黨」派出代表即可被接受。這種論調顯示,台灣內部存在著巨大的差異,對於台灣是否具有主權獨立國家的定位,都尚未達成有效的共識,遑論在「國家行為」上能夠凝聚全民意志,向上提昇台灣的風險辨識與風險治理能力。

在如此險惡的國內外條件下,我們應該選出怎麼樣的國家領袖呢?澄社正在串連知識界同仁,準備針對總統候選人的人品、團隊、政策、執行力與願景等等問題,進行全方位的檢驗,而最關鍵的一項,則是兩位總統候選人在「國家定位」上,究竟站在何種位置,想把台灣帶到什麼方向?如前所述,台灣不是一個「正常」的國家,充滿了不可測的風險,因此,國家領導人不能作「太平總統」,卻必須時時刻刻以堅毅的意志力,與高度清晰的判斷力,來帶領國家走出險境,航向具有自立性與自主性的目標,不致於沈淪為他人的附庸。

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