不拆「鳥籠」,馬必「失蹄」

洪裕宏
陽明大學哲學所教授,澄社執委

從明年初的立委選舉到三月總統大選,將有四個公投案要投票。立委選舉時有「追討不當黨產」與「反貪腐」二項公投,總統大選時則有「入聯公投」與「返聯公投」。這將是一個公投熱季。國親二黨從堅決反對通過公投法,反對還給人民公民投票權,到意識到民意擋不住了,心不甘情不願地通過一部「鳥籠公投法」,到現在自己也提出二個公投案。雖然目前這部「鳥籠公投法」層層限制人民的創制權,但是公民投票已逐漸深植人心,成為我國民主政治的常態。這是我國民主政治的大進步。
不過「鳥籠公投法」的提案、成案與通過的門檻都太高,人民要利用公民投票來立法或修憲,不僅代價太高,而且通過困難。提案要八萬多人連署,成案要八十七萬以上的連署,通過則要過半公民數投票與過半公民數同意。以「入聯公投」為例,要有超過八百多萬人投票,並有超過八百多萬人贊成,「入聯公投」才算通過。這部公投法有如給你一隻鳥,卻將鳥關在鳥籠中,不讓它自由飛翔。
販夫走卒也知道,國親二黨搞出這樣的「鳥籠公投法」,其目的就是不給人民一部可行的公投法。陳總統於 十月十日 演講中希望修公投法,國親二黨竟然認為修公投法是搞台獨,反對修法。據了解,國親二黨本來有意在七月臨會修公投法,但是其修法重點在取消總統發動防禦性公投的權力。後來怕擦槍走火,在強大的民意壓力下被迫調降門檻,因而擱置至今。
設立公投法超高門檻,是反民主與違憲的作為。憲法明訂,主權屬於全體國民。政黨、政府及國會都因人民之授權而享有各自的權力。荒謬的是,現在政黨與國會卻聯合起來限制人民的權力。立法院是代議機關,立法委員代表選民執行立法相關工作。只有人民透過憲法來規範政府、政黨與國會,那有顛倒過來,騎到人民頭上,不准人民這個,不准人民那個,開民主之倒車?
舉例來說,如果國會立法怠惰,或政黨惡鬥導致立法癱瘓,人民可以跳過立法院,透過公民投票自行直接立法。這個道理很簡單,我們人民委託你立法委員去做的事,如果立委做不好,人民當然可以拿回來自己做。如果我要你修憲或制憲,你故意刁難,或七折八扣,我們人民就拿回來,透過公民投票自己修憲,自己制憲。如果立法院這樣一直爛下去,我們人民乾脆自行公民投票廢除立法院,實施全面性直接民權,所有的立法、修法、修憲、制憲、審預算等全部透過公民投票,人民自己來。利用科技在家家戶戶裝設投票電腦,比花錢雇一大堆濫權的立委還便宜呢!國親二黨不要把上面說的當笑話。民主憲政的觀念已深植人心,馬英九先生想選總統的話,也不要口口聲聲民主,背地裡卻在暗幹公投法,剝奪人民的基本參政權。一句話:不拆「鳥籠」,馬必「失蹄」。

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