健康地球,生命永續

鄭天佐

生命非常脆弱,只能在狹窄物理條件下生存,地球有生物是很偶然的事。地球位於太陽系的可居住帶,離太陽距離剛好使地面溫度和引力可形成氣壓適度的大氣層。地球還有月球穩定軌道,使地面溫度與氣壓不因軌道改變大幅變動。地球從殞石和彗星捕捉到冰和水氣,凝聚成海洋和湖泊。大氣中有生物形成與生存所需元素:氫、碳與氧。

生命有三要素:水與空氣維持生命,陽光提供生物成長所需能量。其實不限於三種,地磁是宇宙線帶電粒子的陷阱,生物才能避開高能粒子的不斷轟擊。水氣的蒸發和對流製造滋潤大地的風雨,雲層也會吸收和反射陽光。大氣厚度雖只有地球半徑的0.2%,自然界的溫室氣體卻在微調地面溫度。如果不是這些氣體把地面反射回去的陽光部分反射回來,地面平均溫度就不是攝氏14度,而是-16度,然則全球會被冰雪覆蓋,不適合生物生存。

產業革命以來人類使用石化能源,向大氣釋放大量額外CO2等溫室氣體,使反射回來的能量增多,多數氣候學者相信這是地面溫度一百多年來上升攝氏約0.85度的主因。科學家也根據全球經濟可能發展情況所會排放溫室氣體數量作電腦模擬,預測本世紀末地面溫度將上升2至4度。溫度上升,水分蒸發加快,暴風雨、颱風、颶風頻繁且加劇,很多地方如非洲卻嚴重乾旱。地球暖化後果報章雜誌報導甚多,高爾的影片也有詳盡的描述。

地球暖化最易從冰雪融化看出,數年來南北極海上冰島破碎和南極與格林蘭地上覆蓋冰層融化之快,令人膽戰心驚。各地冰河和冰雪覆蓋面積也快速萎縮,這些造成幾十年來海平面上升0.3公尺,有些低窪島嶼被淹沒。果真如預測格林蘭和南極地上冰山在五十年內全部融化,則海平面將上升十多公尺,世界海港都將成為威尼斯,荷蘭與孟加拉等國也將失去大部分土地。

宇宙中只知地球有生物存在,它是我們珍貴的也是唯一的家。地球除了維護生命,本身也具生命;地球健康生物才能欣欣向榮。為了生命的永續,我們不管對人、動植物或地球都要珍惜這難得的福份與緣分,和平相處並互相尊重與愛護。
(作者為澄社社員)

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