如何選出好的總統和立委?

顧忠華

在一個民主時代,每個公民手中都有一張選票,透過定期選舉的機制,選出國家元首、地方首長以及各級民意代表,但是,「公民權」的行使絕對不僅限於投下神聖的一票,公民們還需要有一連串選前和選後的配套行動,才能讓民主制度真正符合「主權在民」的核心精神。

台灣曾經頻繁地舉行過由基層到總統大選的各種選舉,然而在形式和選風上,卻談不上有什麼改進。特別令人詬病的是,台灣的選民在投下他手中的那一票時,往往並不很清楚他要選的對象究竟有那些具體政見,選上之後可能對公共政產生什麼影響?其實台灣的選民經常是受到人情、地域、利益(如買/賣票)等等因素的影響,而不太接近「自主意志」的投票模式,更缺乏以「公民」身份繼續監督政治人物的認知和行動,以致若干政客在當選後,馬上露出惡形惡狀的猙獰面目。立法院的亂象和最近台東縣議會通過「自肥條款」的事件,只不過是冰山之一角。

亦因此,面對明年一月的立委選舉和三月的總統大選,我們應該要問的是:整個選舉的品質,有沒有機會脫胎換骨,讓公民的選擇是在更充份的資訊之下進行?事實上,民主先進國家的選舉通常沒有聲嘶力竭的「拼場」、「造勢」活動,反而是運用現代科技的便利性,透過網路及電子媒體,由各階層、身份的選民提出大家關心的問題,直接詢問候選人,來考驗政治人物的臨場反應。譬如最近美國的民主黨辦理總統候選人之間的辯論,即由CNN結合YOU TUBE,蒐集了各式各樣的問題以測試候選人。這樣的作法打破了時空限制,使得更多公民得以親身參與民主的實踐,台灣何妨取法乎上,也來試驗一番呢?我們期待所有的候選人、政黨、民間社團和社會大眾,能在即將舉行的兩次選舉中,共同促成候選人之間公開、理性的辯論,這不僅可以展現出民主成熟的能力和風度,也讓全體選民對於候選人有全面檢驗的管道,釐清政黨及候選人對於攸關公眾福祉之各項公共政策的立場。總之,這兩次選舉如果可以引進創新的公民參與機制,才能夠讓選舉朝向高品質的民主文化「升級」,並提高選出好的立委及總統的機率。

(作者為政大社會系教授、澄社執委、公民監督國會聯盟理事長)

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