國族課程,大家一起修

【李丁讚】中國時報 A15/時論廣場 2006/10/17

施明德所領導的「反貪腐」運動,經過圍城、天下圍攻等「大戰略」,幾十萬「紅衫軍」表現出驚人的力量,讓人動容。但礙於潛藏的動亂因子,以及可能因之而起的社會對立,終究不得不鳴金收兵。同樣的,國親兩黨的二次罷免案也再次鎩羽而歸,再加上之前「七一五」等各種呼籲,陳總統總是不動如山。為什麼一個只剩下二十趴支持率的總統,還可以安然渡過一波又一波的反對風浪呢?

難道這二十趴的支持者看不到他的惡劣行徑嗎?其實不盡然。相當高比率的阿扁支持者的確看到阿扁的問題。但是,他們最後還是選擇支持他。為什麼,因為阿扁的行為被「合理化」了。他們認為,阿扁的問題不是個人的,而是歷史的、結構的問題。要評斷阿扁,一定要放在這個大結構下才合理。

很多反扁者認為,這二十趴的深綠支持者都是受到政客利用台灣國族主義的操弄與煽動,才會支持一個這麼差的總統。反扁者甚至以輕視、鄙夷的態度來看待這些民眾,認為他們受人利用、缺乏判斷力等。但是,如果反扁者繼續用這種態度來看待對方,雙方將永遠沒有對話、和解的可能。陳水扁也就必然「永保安康」。

的確,政客在操弄、利用國族主義。游錫(方方土)的話應該受到嚴厲譴責。但是,這只是故事的一半。故事的另一半是,在群眾心中,的確存在一些「情緒」,一些國民黨過去幾十年的執政,以及過去六年的反對黨作為,所慢慢累積而成的負性經驗,或可稱為「省籍情結」。沒有這些「情緒」的火苗,政客再怎樣搧風,都很難產生效果。這一點,只要和幾個本土性比較強的,尤其是中年以上的民眾多接觸,就馬上會發現,這些都是真真實實的情緒。政客是在呼應這些情緒。

因此,解決當前的政治僵局,一定要嘗試把陳水扁的問題放在這個歷史脈絡下,嘗試用更寬廣的角度來思考問題,雙方才能產生真正的對話與和解。我們不能寄望政客不要煽動。只要有選舉,政客就一定會煽動,這是他們的生存之道,是無解的。有解的是,我們要透過公民對話,以更具理解、同情的心來化解這些情緒,讓歷史「正義」能夠回復,這樣,政客就沒有煽動的機會。

因此,「陳水扁」是一個機會。反扁的挫敗,讓我們看到台灣政治問題的深邃與嚴重,我們應該利用這個機會,好好地進行公民之間的和解與對話,除了解決當前的政治困境外,更讓我們可以認真來面對過去,更有能力來面對未來。因此,這是台灣任何政治實踐方案所不能跳過的「必須」,這個問題解決了,台灣政治才能正常化。這是國族問題的第一章。

其次,有情緒的,其實不只是「本省人」,很多「外省人」面對未來,充滿「少數者」的不安與焦慮。因此,在「外省人」幫助「本省人」走出「過去」後,本省人也要用「慷慨」的心來幫助「外省人」走向「未來」。決不能有「族群投票」,更不能讓外省人,以及客家、原住民、新住民等有「少數者的焦慮」。這樣,國族認同才能真正形成。這是國族第二章。

再其次,我們要把「族群」的概念推廣到其他各種文化人口,對不管是階級、性別、文化上的少數,都要以珍惜、寬容的新來對待她們,讓她們成為共和國的平等而積極的公民。這樣,台灣才能成為一個「進步的」、「多元的」國家,也才有寬廣的胸襟和能量來面向世界。這是國族第三章。

最後,面對中國、面對華人世界、面對亞洲、面對全球,我們要有台灣的主體思維,但決不能退縮、封閉。我們需要一個更健康、更有信心、也更開放的視野,這樣,共和國才能生生不息,自新又新,台灣主體才能不斷壯大、成長。這是國族第四章。

「國族」這門課,很難。它隱含太多情緒,可能是保守、反動、甚至致命。但也可以積極、進步、帶動熱情。端看我們如何處理。更難的是,因為「情緒」的存在,國族是一門「檔修課」,除了第三章可以隨時進行外,其餘各章都有時間順序。過去沒處理,就很難面對未來。內部沒有信任,就很難面對外部。一章也不能跳過。「陳水扁」事件,正是讓我們進入第一章的契機。希望反/挺扁雙方,都能從這個寬闊的視野出發,即時展開公民對話、和解,進入過去、解決當下,邁向未來。

(作者為清華大學社會學研究所教授,澄社社員)

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